Reports and Articles by Center Researchers

This page lists selected reports and articles by NCCF researchers.


Kagan, S. L., & Roth, J. L. (2017). Transforming early childhood systems for future generations: Obligations and opportunities. International Journal of Early Childhood, 49(103), 1-18.

Reid, J. L., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. B. (2017). Low-income parents’ adult interactions at childcare centers. Early Child Development & Care, 187(1), 138-151.


Farrell, A., Kagan, S. L., & Tisdall, E. K. M. (2016). Handbook of early childhood research. London: SAGE Press.

Martin, A., & Gardner, M. (2016). College expectations for all? The early adult outcomes of low-achieving adolescents who expect to earn a Bachelor’s degree. Applied Developmental Science, 20, 108-120. doi: 10.1080/10888691.2015.1080596

Pilkauskas, N., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2016). Maternal labor force participation and differences by education in an urban birth cohort study – 1998-2010. Demographic Research, 34(14), 407-420.

Reid, J. L. (2016). Racial/ethnic diversity and language development in the preschool classroom. In E. Frankenberg, L. M. Graces, & M. Hopkins (Eds.), School integration matters: Research-based strategies to advance equity (pp. 39-55). New York: Teachers College Press.

Reid, J. L., Kagan, S. L., Hilton, M., & Potter, H. (2016). A better start: Why classroom diversity matters in early education. New York, NY and Washington, DC: The Century Foundation and the Poverty & Race Research Action Council.


Kagan, S. L. (2015). Conceptualizing ECE governance: Not the elephant in the room. In S. L. Kagan & R. E. Gomez (Eds.), Early childhood governance: Choices and consequences (pp. 9-29). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Kagan, S. L. (2015). Why governance? Why this volume?. In S. L. Kagan & R. E. Gomez (Eds.), Early childhood governance: Choices and consequences (pp. 3-8). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Kagan, S. L., & Fox, E. A. (2015). Realising early childhood development’s promise: Building a system of high-quality, equitably distributed and sustainable services. Every Child Australia, 21(1), 38-39.

Gomez, R. E., Kagan, S. L., & Fox, E. A. (2015). Professional development of the early childhood education teaching workforce in the United States: An overview. Professional Development in Education, 41(2), 169-186.

MacKenzie, M.J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2015). Spanking and children’s externalizing behavior across the first decade of life: Evidence for transactional processes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 658-669. 

Martin, A., Razza, R.A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2015). The Maternal Description of Child (MDoC): A new audiotaped measure of maternal affect. Infant and Child Development, 24, 228-239.

Reid, J. L. (2015, Winter). The racial and ethnic composition of pre-kindergarten classrooms and children’s language development. Penn State Law Review, 119(3), 645-685.


Browning, C.R., Gardner, M., Maimon, D., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Collective efficacy and the contingent consequences of exposure to life-threatening violence. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1878-1890.

Gaumer, E., Jacobwitz, A., Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Building ties: The social networks of affordable-housing residents. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 16, 47-68.

Lee, R., Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W.-J., Waldfogel, J., & Zhai, F. (2014). Is participation in Head Start associated with less maternal spanking for boys and girls? Children and Youth Services Review, 46, 55-63

Scott-Little, C., Kagan, S.L., Reid, J.L., Sumrall, T.C., & Fox, E.A. (2014). Common early learning and development standards analysis for the North Carolina EAG Consortium summary report. Report for the Build Initiative.

Riina, E., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Parent-to-child physical aggression, neighborhood social cohesion, and the development of children’s internalizing and externalizing. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 468-477.

Klebanov, P. K., Evans, G., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Poverty, ethnicity, and risk of obesity among low birth weight infants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 245-253.

Johnson, A.D., Martin, A., & Ryan, R.M. (2014). Child care subsidies and child care choices over time. Child Development, 85, 1843-1851.

Mitchell, C., Hobcraft, J., McLanahan, S.S., Siegel, S.R., Berg, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Garfinkel, I., & Notterman, D. (2014). Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, 5944-5949.

Lee, R., Zhai, F., Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W.J., & Waldfogel, J. (2014). Head Start participation and school readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Developmental Psychology, 50, 202-215.


Yoshikawa, H., Weiland, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M., Espinosa, L., Gormley, W., Ludwig, J.O., Magnuson, K.A., Phillips, D.A., & Zaslow, M.J. (2013). Investing in our future: The evidence base for early childhood education. Policy brief, Society for Research in Child Development.

Johnson, A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Child-care subsidies and school readiness in kindergarten. Child Development, 84, 1806-1822.

Mitchell, C., McLanahan, S., Brooks-Gunn, J., Garfinkel, I., Hobcraft, J., & Notterman, D. (2013). Genetic differential sensitivity to social environments: Implications for research. American Journal of Public Health, 103, S102-S110.

Love, J.M., Chazan-Cohen, R., Raikes, H., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2013). What makes a difference: Early Head Start evaluation findings in a developmental context. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78.

Kagan, S.L. (2013). David, Goliath, and the ephemeral parachute: The relationship from a United States perspective. In P. Moss (Ed.,), Early childhood and compulsory education: Reconceptualizing the relationship. Oxford, England: Routledge.

Kagan, S.L. (2013). Report on Turkish Inspection System Development: Narrative report. Ankara, Turkey: UNICEF and Ministry of Education.

Kagan, S.L., Scott-Little, C., Reid, J., & Castillo, E. (2013). Massachusetts Department of Early Education and Care alignment study: Deliverable III: Alignment analyses of the Massachusetts Standards for 3- and 4-year-old children and three assessments for the same age groups. New York: National Center for Children and Families.

Brady-Smith, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Ispa, J. M., Fuligni, A. S.,… Fine, M. (2013). Mothers’ interactions with infants: A person-oriented, within ethnic group approach. Parenting: Science and Practice, 13, 27-43.

Hanson, M.H., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Martin, A. (2013). Report of Findings: The Possibility Project Impact on Post-secondary Education. Report submitted to the Lumina Foundation. New York: Teachers College.

Martin, A., Ryan, R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Longitudinal associations among interest, persistence, supportive parenting, and achievement in early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 658-667.

Reid, J. L. & Ready, D. D. (2013). High quality preschool: The socio-economic composition of preschool classrooms and children’s learning. Early Education & Development, 24(8), 1082-1111.

Riina, E., Martin, A., Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Context matters: Links between neighborhood discrimination, neighborhood cohesion and African American adolescents’ adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 136-146.


Craigie, T.A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2012). Family structure, family stability and outcomes of five-year-old children. Families, Relationships and Societies: An International Journal of Research and Debate, 1, 43-61.

Gardner, M., Brown, C., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Can organized youth activities protect against internalizing problems among adolescents living in violent homes? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 662-677.

Gardner, M., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Exploring the link between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior: Does neighborhood disadvantage matter? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 135-149.

Holod, A., Johnson, A.D., Martin, A., Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Contracts, vouchers, and child care subsidy stability: A preliminary look at associations between subsidy payment mechanism and stability of subsidy receipt. Child and Youth Care Forum, 41, 343-356.

Kagan, S.L., Martin, A., Gomez, R., Castillo, E., Bumgarner, E., Kennedy, E., Kumar, L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Young Children’s Early Experiences: Examining Differences on Long Island. Report prepared for the Rauch Foundation.

Kagan, S.L., & Kauerz, K., Eds. (2012). Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning. New York: Teachers College Press.

MacKenzie, M.J., Nicklas, E., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years of age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study. Infant and Child Development, 21, 3-33.

Martin, A. Brooks-Gunn, J., Razza, R. (2012). Sustained attention at age 5 predicts attention-related problems at age 9. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36, 413-419.

Martin, A., Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). The mediated and moderated effects of family support on child maltreatment. Journal of Family Issues, 33, 920-941.

Martin, A., Razza, R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Specifying the links between household chaos and preschool children’s development. Early Child Development and Care, 182, 1247-1263.

Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. A. (2012). Peer relationships and depressive symptomatology in boys at puberty. Developmental Psychology, 48, 429-435.

Razza, R.A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). The implications of early attentional regulation for school success among low-income children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33, 311-319.

Reid, J. L. (2012). Socioeconomic diversity and early learning: The missing link in policy for high-quality preschools. In R. Kahlenberg (Ed.), The Future of School Integration (pp. 67-125). New York: The Century Foundation.


Barajas, R. G., Martin, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Hale, L. (2011). Mother-child bed-sharing in toddlerhood and cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Pediatrics, 128, 339-347.

Carlson, M. J., Pilkauskas, N. V., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Couples as partners and parents over children’s early years. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 317-334.

DeRose, L. M., Shiyko, M. P., Foster, H., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Associations between menarcheal timing and behavioral developmental trajectories for girls from age 6 to age 15. The Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1329-1342.

Hale, L., Berger, L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & LeBourgeois, M. (2011). A longitudinal study of low-income preschoolers’ language-based bedtime routines with sleep duration, and cognitive, behavioral and health outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 423–433.

Johnson, A. D., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Who uses child care subsidies? Comparing recipients to eligible non-recipients on family background characteristics and child care preferences. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1072-1083.

Kagan, S. L. (2011). Early childhood transitions in transition: Focusing on equity,  quality and continuity. Aga Khan Foundation U.S.A. Annual Report 2010.  Washington, DC: Aga Khan Foundation.

Kagan, S. L., & Friedlander, J. (2011). Universal plus: What’s worth doing is worth doing well. In E. Zigler, W. S. Barnett, & W. S. Gilliam (Eds.), The pre-k debates: Current controversies and issues (pp. 42-47).Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Kagan, S.L. & Kauerz, K. (2011). Moving the agenda on the Early Learning Challenge. Education Week, 48.

Kimbro, R. T., Brooks-Gunn, J., & McLanahan, S. (2011). Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 668-676.

MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Who spanks infants and toddlers? Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1364–1373.

Mitchell, C., Notterman, D., Brooks-Gunn, J., Hobcraft, J., Garfinkel, I., Jaeger, K., Kotenko, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2011). Role of mother’s genes and environment in postpartum depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 8189–8193.

Ryan, R., Johnson, A., Rigby, E., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). The impact of child care subsidy use on child care quality. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26, 320–331.

Zhai, F., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Head Start and urban children’s school readiness: A birth cohort study in 18 cities. Developmental Psychology, 47, 134–152.


Beck, A. N., Cooper, C. E., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Partnership transitions and maternal parenting. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 219-233.

Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W.-J., Waldfogel, J. (2010). First-year maternal employment and child development in the first seven years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 75(2).

Martin, A., Ryan, R. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). When fathers’ supportiveness matters most: Maternal and paternal parenting and children’s school readiness. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 145-155.

Martin, A., Tarrant, K., Bumgarner, E., Holod, A., & Johnson, A. (2010). Scoring the Unified Performance Measurement System: Recommendations. Report submitted to the New York City Administration for Children’s Services. New York: NationalCenter for Children and Families.

Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. A. (2010). Development’s tortoise and hare: Pubertal timing, pubertal tempo, and depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1341–1353.

Scott-Little, C. & Reid, J. L. (2010). Aligning the content of early childhood care and education. In S. L. Kagan and K. Tarrant (Eds.), Transitions in the Early Years: Creating Connections Across Early Childhood System (pp. 109-133). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

Razza, R.A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Associations among family environment, attention, and school readiness for low-income children. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1528-1542.

Roth, J. L., Malone, L. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes? A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 310–324.

Tyrka, A. R., Kelly, M. M., Graber, J. A., DeRose, L., Lee, J. K., Warren, M. P., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Behavioral adjustment in a community sample of boys: Links with basal and stress-induced salivary cortisol concentrations. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 1167-1177.


Committee on Early Childhood Mathematics, National Research Council of the National Academies (Kagan, member). (2009). Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood: Paths Towards Excellence and Equity.

Cooper, C. E., McLanahan, S., Meadows, S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Journal of Family and Marriage, 71, 558 – 574.

Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Adolescents’ exposure to community violence: Are neighborhood youth organizations protective? Journal of Community Psychology, 37, 505-525.

Hetzner, N. M. P., Razza, R. A., Malone, L., M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Associations among feeding behaviors during infancy and child illness at two years. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 13, 795–805.

Howard, K. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). The role of home-visiting programs in preventing child abuse and neglect. Future of Children, 19, 119-146.

Kagan, S.L., & Reid, J. (2009).  Advancing ECE2 Policy: Early Childhood Education (ECE) and its Quest for Excellence, Corehence, and Equity.  A comprehensive analysis of Federal Early Education Policy for the new presidential administration, commissioned by the Center on Education Policy, Washington, D.C. for its project on Rethinking the Federal Role in Education.

Kagan, S. L. & Reid, J. L. (2009). Invest in early childhood education. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(8), 572-576.

Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Tuckheimer, E., Van Hulle, C., D’Onofrio, B., Brooks-Gunn, J., Rodgers, J. L., Emery, R. E., & Lahey, B. B. (2009). Associations between father absence and age of first sexual intercourse. Child Development, 80, 1436-1480.

Linver, M. R., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Patterns of adolescents’ participation in organized activities: Are sports best when combined with other activities? Developmental Psychology, 45, 354–367.

Gardner, M., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Sports participation and juvenile delinquency: The role of the peer context among adolescent boys and girls with varied histories of problem behavior. Developmental Psychology, 45, 341-353.