Reports and Articles by Center Researchers

This page lists selected reports and articles by NCCF researchers.


Kagan, S. L. (2015). Conceptualizing ECE governance: Not the elephant in the room. In S. L. Kagan & R. E. Gomez (Eds.), Early childhood governance: Choices and consequences (pp. 9-29). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Kagan, S. L. (2015). Why governance? Why this volume?. In S. L. Kagan & R. E. Gomez (Eds.), Early childhood governance: Choices and consequences (pp. 3-8). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Kagan, S. L., & Fox, E. A. (2015). Realising early childhood development’s promise: Building a system of high-quality, equitably distributed and sustainable services. Every Child Australia, 21(1), 38-39.

Gomez, R. E., Kagan, S. L., & Fox, E. A. (2015). Professional development of the early childhood education teaching workforce in the United States: An overview. Professional Development in Education, 41(2), 169-186.

MacKenzie, M.J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2015). Spanking and children’s externalizing behavior across the first decade of life: Evidence for transactional processes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 658-669. 

Martin, A., Razza, R.A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2015). The Maternal Description of Child (MDoC): A new audiotaped measure of maternal affect. Infant and Child Development, 24, 228-239.


Browning, C.R., Gardner, M., Maimon, D., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Collective efficacy and the contingent consequences of exposure to life-threatening violence. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1878-1890.

Gaumer, E., Jacobwitz, A., Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Building ties: The social networks of affordable-housing residents. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 16, 47-68.

Lee, R., Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W.-J., Waldfogel, J., & Zhai, F. (2014). Is participation in Head Start associated with less maternal spanking for boys and girls? Children and Youth Services Review, 46, 55-63

Scott-Little, C., Kagan, S.L., Reid, J.L., Sumrall, T.C., & Fox, E.A. (2014). Common early learning and development standards analysis for the North Carolina EAG Consortium summary report. Report for the Build Initiative.

Riina, E., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Parent-to-child physical aggression, neighborhood social cohesion, and the development of children’s internalizing and externalizing. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 468-477.

Klebanov, P. K., Evans, G., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Poverty, ethnicity, and risk of obesity among low birth weight infants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 245-253.

Johnson, A.D., Martin, A., & Ryan, R.M. (2014). Child care subsidies and child care choices over time. Child Development, 85, 1843-1851.

Mitchell, C., Hobcraft, J., McLanahan, S.S., Siegel, S.R., Berg, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Garfinkel, I., & Notterman, D. (2014). Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, 5944-5949.

Lee, R., Zhai, F., Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W.J., & Waldfogel, J. (2014). Head Start participation and school readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Developmental Psychology, 50, 202-215.


Yoshikawa, H., Weiland, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M., Espinosa, L., Gormley, W., Ludwig, J.O., Magnuson, K.A., Phillips, D.A., & Zaslow, M.J. (2013). Investing in our future: The evidence base for early childhood education. Policy brief, Society for Research in Child Development.

Johnson, A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Child-care subsidies and school readiness in kindergarten. Child Development, 84, 1806-1822.

Mitchell, C., McLanahan, S., Brooks-Gunn, J., Garfinkel, I., Hobcraft, J., & Notterman, D. (2013). Genetic differential sensitivity to social environments: Implications for research. American Journal of Public Health, 103, S102-S110.

Love, J.M., Chazan-Cohen, R., Raikes, H., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2013). What makes a difference: Early Head Start evaluation findings in a developmental context. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78.

Kagan, S.L. (2013). David, Goliath, and the ephemeral parachute: The relationship from a United States perspective. In P. Moss (Ed.,), Early childhood and compulsory education: Reconceptualizing the relationship. Oxford, England: Routledge.

Kagan, S.L. (2013). Report on Turkish Inspection System Development: Narrative report. Ankara, Turkey: UNICEF and Ministry of Education.

Kagan, S.L., Scott-Little, C., Reid, J., & Castillo, E. (2013). Massachusetts Department of Early Education and Care alignment study: Deliverable III: Alignment analyses of the Massachusetts Standards for 3- and 4-year-old children and three assessments for the same age groups. New York: National Center for Children and Families.

Brady-Smith, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Ispa, J. M., Fuligni, A. S.,… Fine, M. (2013). Mothers’ interactions with infants: A person-oriented, within ethnic group approach. Parenting: Science and Practice, 13, 27-43.

Hanson, M.H., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Martin, A. (2013). Report of Findings: The Possibility Project Impact on Post-secondary Education. Report submitted to the Lumina Foundation. New York: Teachers College.

Martin, A., Ryan, R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Longitudinal associations among interest, persistence, supportive parenting, and achievement in early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 658-667.

Riina, E., Martin, A., Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Context matters: Links between neighborhood discrimination, neighborhood cohesion and African American adolescents’ adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 136-146.


Craigie, T.A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2012). Family structure, family stability and outcomes of five-year-old children. Families, Relationships and Societies: An International Journal of Research and Debate, 1, 43-61.

Gardner, M., Brown, C., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Can organized youth activities protect against internalizing problems among adolescents living in violent homes? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 662-677.

Gardner, M., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Exploring the link between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior: Does neighborhood disadvantage matter? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 135-149.

Holod, A., Johnson, A.D., Martin, A., Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Contracts, vouchers, and child care subsidy stability: A preliminary look at associations between subsidy payment mechanism and stability of subsidy receipt. Child and Youth Care Forum, 41, 343-356.

Kagan, S.L., Martin, A., Gomez, R., Castillo, E., Bumgarner, E., Kennedy, E., Kumar, L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Young Children’s Early Experiences: Examining Differences on Long Island. Report prepared for the Rauch Foundation.

Kagan, S.L., & Kauerz, K., Eds. (2012). Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning. New York: Teachers College Press.

MacKenzie, M.J., Nicklas, E., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years of age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study. Infant and Child Development, 21, 3-33.

Martin, A. Brooks-Gunn, J., Razza, R. (2012). Sustained attention at age 5 predicts attention-related problems at age 9. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36, 413-419.

Martin, A., Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). The mediated and moderated effects of family support on child maltreatment. Journal of Family Issues, 33, 920-941.

Martin, A., Razza, R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). Specifying the links between household chaos and preschool children’s development. Early Child Development and Care, 182, 1247-1263.

Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. A. (2012). Peer relationships and depressive symptomatology in boys at puberty. Developmental Psychology, 48, 429-435.

Razza, R.A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2012). The implications of early attentional regulation for school success among low-income children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33, 311-319.


Barajas, R. G., Martin, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Hale, L. (2011). Mother-child bed-sharing in toddlerhood and cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Pediatrics, 128, 339-347.

Carlson, M. J., Pilkauskas, N. V., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Couples as partners and parents over children’s early years. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 317-334.

DeRose, L. M., Shiyko, M. P., Foster, H., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Associations between menarcheal timing and behavioral developmental trajectories for girls from age 6 to age 15. The Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1329-1342.

Hale, L., Berger, L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & LeBourgeois, M. (2011). A longitudinal study of low-income preschoolers’ language-based bedtime routines with sleep duration, and cognitive, behavioral and health outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 423–433.

Johnson, A. D., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Who uses child care subsidies? Comparing recipients to eligible non-recipients on family background characteristics and child care preferences. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1072-1083.

Kagan, S. L. (2011). Early childhood transitions in transition: Focusing on equity,  quality and continuity. Aga Khan Foundation U.S.A. Annual Report 2010.  Washington, DC: Aga Khan Foundation.

Kagan, S. L., & Friedlander, J. (2011). Universal plus: What’s worth doing is worth doing well. In E. Zigler, W. S. Barnett, & W. S. Gilliam (Eds.), The pre-k debates: Current controversies and issues (pp. 42-47).Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Kagan, S.L. & Kauerz, K. (2011). Moving the agenda on the Early Learning Challenge. Education Week, 48.

Kimbro, R. T., Brooks-Gunn, J., & McLanahan, S. (2011). Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 668-676.

MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Who spanks infants and toddlers? Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1364–1373.

Mitchell, C., Notterman, D., Brooks-Gunn, J., Hobcraft, J., Garfinkel, I., Jaeger, K., Kotenko, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2011). Role of mother’s genes and environment in postpartum depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 8189–8193.

Ryan, R., Johnson, A., Rigby, E., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). The impact of child care subsidy use on child care quality. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26, 320–331.

Zhai, F., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Head Start and urban children’s school readiness: A birth cohort study in 18 cities. Developmental Psychology, 47, 134–152.


Beck, A. N., Cooper, C. E., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Partnership transitions and maternal parenting. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 219-233.

Brooks-Gunn, J., Han, W.-J., Waldfogel, J. (2010). First-year maternal employment and child development in the first seven years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 75(2).

Martin, A., Ryan, R. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). When fathers’ supportiveness matters most: Maternal and paternal parenting and children’s school readiness. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 145-155.

Martin, A., Tarrant, K., Bumgarner, E., Holod, A., & Johnson, A. (2010). Scoring the Unified Performance Measurement System: Recommendations. Report submitted to the New York City Administration for Children’s Services. New York: NationalCenter for Children and Families.

Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. A. (2010). Development’s tortoise and hare: Pubertal timing, pubertal tempo, and depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1341–1353.

Razza, R.A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Associations among family environment, attention, and school readiness for low-income children. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1528-1542.

Roth, J. L., Malone, L. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes? A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 310–324.

Tyrka, A. R., Kelly, M. M., Graber, J. A., DeRose, L., Lee, J. K., Warren, M. P., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Behavioral adjustment in a community sample of boys: Links with basal and stress-induced salivary cortisol concentrations. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 1167-1177.


Committee on Early Childhood Mathematics, National Research Council of the National Academies (Kagan, member). (2009). Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood: Paths Towards Excellence and Equity.

Cooper, C. E., McLanahan, S., Meadows, S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Journal of Family and Marriage, 71, 558 – 574.

Gardner, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Adolescents’ exposure to community violence: Are neighborhood youth organizations protective? Journal of Community Psychology, 37, 505-525.

Hetzner, N. M. P., Razza, R. A., Malone, L., M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Associations among feeding behaviors during infancy and child illness at two years. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 13, 795–805.

Howard, K. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). The role of home-visiting programs in preventing child abuse and neglect. Future of Children, 19, 119-146.

Kagan, S.L., & Reid, J. (2009).  Advancing ECE2 Policy: Early Childhood Education (ECE) and its Quest for Excellence, Corehence, and Equity.  A comprehensive analysis of Federal Early Education Policy for the new presidential administration, commissioned by the Center on Education Policy, Washington, D.C. for its project on Rethinking the Federal Role in Education.

Mendle, J., Harden, K. P., Tuckheimer, E., Van Hulle, C., D’Onofrio, B., Brooks-Gunn, J., Rodgers, J. L., Emery, R. E., & Lahey, B. B. (2009). Associations between father absence and age of first sexual intercourse. Child Development, 80, 1436-1480.

Linver, M. R., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Patterns of adolescents’ participation in organized activities: Are sports best when combined with other activities? Developmental Psychology, 45, 354–367.

Gardner, M., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Sports participation and juvenile delinquency: The role of the peer context among adolescent boys and girls with varied histories of problem behavior. Developmental Psychology, 45, 341-353.


Berger, L., Brooks-Gunn, J., Paxson, C., & Waldfogel, J. (2008). First-year maternal employment and child outcomes: Differences across racial and ethnic groups. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 365-387.

Berlin, L. J., Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Malone, P. S., Brooks-Gunn, J., Brady-Smith, C., Ayoub, C., & Bai, Y. (2009). Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Child Development, 80, 1403-1420.

Brooks-Gunn, J., & Donahue, E.H., Eds. (2008).  “Children and Electronic Media.” The Future of Children, vol. 18, no. 1.

Browning, C. R., Burrington, L., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Neighborhood structural inequality, collective efficacy, and sexual risk behavior among urban youth. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 269-285.

Carlson, M. J., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Coparenting and nonresident fathers’ involvement with young children after a nonmarital birth. Demography, 45, 461-488.

Fauth, R. C., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Seven years later: Effects of a neighborhood mobility program on poor Black and Latino adults’ well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 119–130.

Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Adolescents’ participation in organized activities and developmental success two and eight years after high school: Do sponsorship, duration, and intensity matter? Developmental Psychology, 44, 814-830.

Johnson, A., Martin, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Petrill, S. (2008). Order in the house! Associations among household chaos, the home literacy environment, maternal reading ability, and children’s early reading. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 445-472.

Kagan, S.L. (2008).  American Early Childhood Education: Preventing or Perpetuating Inequity? Paper presented at the Campaign for Educational Equity at Teachers College, Columbia University’s fourth annual Equity Symposium, “Comprehensive Educational Equity: Overcoming the Socioeconomic Barriers to School Success.”

Klebanov, P. K., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Differential exposure to early childhood education services and mother–toddler interaction. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 213-232.

Martin, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Klebanov, P., Buka, S., & McCormick, M. (2008). Long-term maternal effects of early childhood intervention: Findings from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP). Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 101-117.

Meadows, S. O., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Stability and change in family structure and maternal health trajectories. American Sociological Review, 73, 314-334.

Nomura, Y., Rajendran, K., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Newcorn, J. H. (2008). Roles of perinatal problems on adolescent antisocial behaviors among children born after 33 completed weeks: A prospective investigation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1108-1117.

Scott-Little, C., Kagan, S.L., Frelow, V.C., & Reid, J. (2008).  Inside the Content of Infant-Toddler Early Learning Guidelines: Results from Analyses,  Issues to Consider, and Recommendations.  This report analyzes the content of Early Learning Guidelines from 21 states to determine what areas of development and learning have been addressed, presents issues to consider, and provides recommendations for improving Early Learning Guidelines.


Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., Pagani, L., Feinstein, L., Engel, M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Sexton, H., Duckworth, K., & Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1428–1446.

Fauth, R., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). Welcome to the neighborhood? Long-term impacts on moving to low-poverty neighborhoods on poor children’s and adolescents’ outcomes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17, 249–284.

Kimbro, R., Brooks-Gunn, J., & McLanahan, S. (2007). Racial and ethnic differentials in overweight and obesity among 3-year-old children. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 298-305.

Martin, A., Ryan, R. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). The joint influence of mother and father parenting on child cognitive outcomes at age 5. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, 423-439.

Meadows, S. O., McLanahan, S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). Parental depression and anxiety and early childhood behavior problems across family types. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 1162-1177.

The National Early Childhood Accountability Task Force (Kagan, Chair). (2007).    Taking Stock: Assessing and Improving Early Childhood Learning and Program Quality.  Details final set of recommendations for state early childhood accountability systems, and for linking such efforts to standards-based assessment efforts in kindergarten and the primary grades.

National Center for Children and Families. (2007).  Research Brief: Using Assessments to Improve HS Quality.

Nomura, Y., Brooks-Gunn, J., Davey, C., Ham, J., & Fifer, W. P. (2007). The role of perinatal problems for risk of co-morbid psychiatric and medical disorders in adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1323-1334.


Cabrera, N., Shannon, J. D., West, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Parental interactions with Latino infants: Variation by country of origin and English proficiency. Child Development, 77, 1190-1207.

DeKlyen, M., Brooks-Gunn, J., McLanahan, S., & Knab, J. (2006). The mental health of married, cohabiting, and non–coresident parents with infants. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1836-1841.

Leventhal, T., Xue, Y., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Immigrant differences in school-age children’s verbal trajectories: A look at four racial/ethnic groups. Child Development, 77, 1359-1374.

Love, J. M., Kisker, E. E., Ross, C., Raikes, H., Constantine, J., Boller, K., Brooks-Gunn, J., Chazan-Choen, R., Tarullo, L. B., Brady-Smith, C., Fuligni, A. S., Schochet, P. Z., Paulsell, D., & Vogel, C. (2005). The effectiveness of Early Head Start for 3-year old children and their parents: Lesson for policy and programs. Development Psychology, 41, 885-901.

McCormick, M. C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Buka, S. L., Goldman, J., Yu, J., Salganik, M., Scott, D. T., Bennet, F. C., Kay, L. L., Bernbaum, J. C., Bauer, C. R., Martin, C., Woods, E. R., Martin, A., & Casey, P. H. (2006). Early intervention in low birth weight premature infants: Results at 18 years of age for the Infant Health and Development Program. Pediatrics, 117, 771-780.

Raikes, H., Pan, B. A., Luze, G., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Brooks-Gunn, J., Constantine, J., Tarullo, L. B., Raikes, H. A., & Rodriguez, E. T. (2006). Mother-child book reading in low-income families: Correlations and outcomes during the first three years of life. Child Development, 77, 924-953.


Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Cause for Celebration? Sustained Effects of Early Childhood Education. NHSA Dialog, 8, No. 1, pp. 1-4.

Brooks-Gunn, J., & Markman, L. (2005). The contribution of parenting to ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. The Future of Children, 15(1), 138-167.

Hill, J. L., Waldfogel, J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Han, W.-J. (2005). Maternal employment and child development: A fresh look using newer methods. Developmental Psychology, 41, 833-850.

Kagan, S.L., & Rigby, E. (2003).  Policy Matters: Setting and Measuring Benchmarks for State Policies Improving the Readiness of Children for School: Recommendations for State Policy. Discussion paper, Policy Matters Project, published by Center for the Study of Social Policy.

Kagan, S.L., & Rigby, E. (2003).  State Policies That Work: Improving the Readiness of Children for School.  Brief No. 2, Policy Matters Project, published by the Center for the Study of Social Policy, February 2003.

Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Neighborhood and gender effects on family processes: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Demonstration. Family Relations, 54, 633-643.

Leventhal, T., Fauth, R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Neighborhood poverty and public policy: A 5-year follow-up of children’s educational outcomes in the New York City Moving to Opportunity Demonstration. Developmental Psychology, 41, 933-952.

Rouse, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., & McLanahan, S. (2005). Introducing the issue, ‘School readiness: Closing racial and ethnic gaps.’ The Future of Children, 15, 5-14.

Scott-Little, C., Kagan, S.L., & Frelow, V.S. (2003). Standards For Preschool Children’s Learning and Development: Who Has Standards, How Were They Developed, And How Are They Used?  Published by SERVE, in Association with the School of Education, University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Xue, Y., Leventhal, T., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Earls, F. (2005). Neighborhood residence and mental health problems of 5- 11-year-olds.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1-10.